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Fluoride and dental health

Fluoride is an inorganic, monatomic anion of fluorine with the chemical formula F−. Fluoride is the simplest anion of fluorine. Its salts and minerals are important chemical reagents and industrial chemicals, mainly used in the production of hydrogen fluoride for fluorocarbons. In terms of charge and size, the fluoride ion resembles the hydroxide ion. Fluoride ions occur on earth in several minerals, particularly fluorite, but are only present in trace quantities in water. Fluoride contributes a distinctive bitter taste. It contributes no color to fluoride salts. Fluoride helps prevent tooth decay by making the tooth more resistant to acid attacks from plaque bacteria and sugars in the mouth. It also reverses early decay. In children under 6 years of age, fluoride becomes incorporated into the development of permanent teeth, making it difficult for acids to demineralize the teeth. Fluoride also helps speed remineralization as well as disrupts acid production in already erupted teeth of both children and adults.

When Fluoride Intake is most necessary
Dry mouth conditions: Also called xerostomia, dry mouth caused by diseases such as Sjögren’s syndrome, certain medications (such as allergy medications, antihistamines, antianxiety drugs, and high blood pressure drugs), and head and neck radiation treatment makes someone more prone to tooth decay. The lack of saliva makes it harder for food particles to be washed away and acids to be neutralized.
Gum disease: Gum disease, also called periodontitis, can expose more of your tooth and tooth roots to bacteria increasing the chance of tooth decay. Gingivitis is an early stage of periodontitis.
History of frequent cavities: If you have one cavity every year or every other year, you might benefit from additional fluoride.
Presence of crowns and/or bridges or braces: These treatments can put teeth at risk for decay at the point where the crown meets the underlying tooth structure or around the brackets of orthodontic appliances.
Can Fluoride cause harm?
Fluoride is safe and effective when used as directed but can be hazardous at high doses (the “toxic” dosage level varies based on an individual’s weight). For this reason, it’s important for parents to carefully supervise their children’s use of fluoride-containing products and to keep fluoride products out of reach of children, especially children under the age of 6.
In addition, excess fluoride can cause defects in the tooth’s enamel that range from barely noticeable white specks or streaks to cosmetically objectionable brown discoloration. These defects are known as fluorosis and occur when the teeth are forming – usually in children younger than 6 years. Fluorosis, when it occurs, is usually associated with naturally occurring fluoride, such as that found in well water. If you use well water and are uncertain about the mineral (especially fluoride) content, a water sample should be tested. Although tooth staining from fluorosis cannot be removed with normal hygiene, your dentist may be able to lighten or remove these stains with professional-strength abrasives or bleaches.
Keep in mind, however, that it’s very difficult to reach hazardous levels given the low levels of fluoride in home-based fluoride-containing products. Nonetheless, if you do have concerns or questions about the amount of fluoride you or your child may be receiving, talk to your child’s dentist, pediatrician, or family doctor.



Chewing gum

According to Wikipedia, Chewing gum is a soft, cohesive substance designed to be chewed without being swallowed. Modern chewing gum is composed of gum base, sweeteners, softeners/plasticizers, flavors, colors, and, typically, a hard or powdered polyol coating. Its texture is reminiscent of rubber because of the physical-chemical properties of its polymer, plasticizer, and resin components, which contribute to its elastic-plastic, sticky, chewy characteristics. Chewing gum in various forms has been around since ancient times. The Greeks chewed sap from the mastic tree, called mastiche. On the other side of the world, the ancient Mayans favored the sap of the sapodilla tree (called tsiclte). Native Americans from New England chewed spruce sap—a habit they passed on to European settlers. Today, the base used for most gum products is a blend of synthetic materials (elastomers, resins and waxes in various proportions). However, chewing gum is as popular as ever.

Chewing gum and dental health
Sugar-free gum sweetened with xylitol has been shown to reduce cavities and plaque. The sweetener sorbitol has the same benefit, but is only about one-third as effective as xylitol. Other sugar substitutes, such as maltitol, aspartame and acesulfame K, have also been found to not cause tooth decay. Xylitol is specific in its inhibition of Streptococcus mutans, bacteria that are significant contributors to tooth decay. Xylitol inhibits Streptococcus mutans in the presence of other sugars, with the exception of fructose. Xylitol is a safe sweetener that benefits teeth and saliva production because, unlike most sugars, it is not fermented to acid. Daily doses of xylitol below 3.44 grams are ineffective and doses above 10.32 grams show no additional benefit. Other active ingredients in chewing gum include fluoride, which strengthens tooth enamel, and p-chlorbenzyl-4-methylbenzylpiperazine, which prevents travel sickness. Chewing gum also increases saliva production.
Chewing gum Increases Saliva Flow
According to research, chewing sugar-free gum for twenty minutes after you eat a meal can cut down on decay. The more you chew, the more saliva you produce, so as you chew your gum, your mouth gets a good rinse from increased saliva flow. Saliva also provides your teeth with the nutrients they need to stay strong. If you experience heartburn after a meal, you may want to give the sticky stuff a try. Saliva neutralizes acids and helps them to travel down your throat.
Gum Must be Sugar Free
Chewing gum is beneficial for your health, but only if it’s sugarless! Chewing sugary gum will negate the positive effects that come from chewing. Bacteria that live in your teeth need sugar to survive, so if you chew sugary gum, you are accommodating the nasty bacteria that cause decay. Calling gum sugar-free is a little misleading. It isn’t bitter tasting, because it’s sweetened with xylitol, sorbitol, aspartame, or mannitol. Your saliva cannot break down these ingredients, so they do not cause cavities.


The oral effect of cannabis

Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant intended for medical or recreational use. The main psychoactive part of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); one of 483 known compounds in the plant, including at least 65 other cannabinoids. Cannabis can be used by smoking, vaporizing, within the food, or as an extract.
Marijuana is derived from the cannabis plant. The main active ingredient is commonly known as THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and is the part of the plant that gives the “high.” There is a wide range of THC potency between different cannabis products.
Heavy use of marijuana has been reported to cause respiratory problems, bronchial complaints, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, tachycardia, acute panic and paranoia and impairment with short-term memory and motor skills. The most beneficial use of marijuana is its antiemetic properties, especially for patients receiving chemotherapy and its ability to reduce intraocular pressure in the treatment of glaucoma. It is used widely for cancer patients, AIDS patients, and other chronic diseases.
Saliva is the mouth’s own, effective cleaning system – it dilutes and washes away food particles and acids that cause erosion. Erosion occurs when enamel is dissolved from tooth surfaces, and teeth may appear shorter and have visibly worn surfaces, making them sensitive. Cannabis reduces the saliva production leading to a dry mouth. If a person often has a dry mouth, erosion may damage their teeth more quickly.
Periodontal (gum) disease is one of the most common chronic diseases among adults and is linked to saliva production. The inflammation associated with the disease causes a breakdown in supporting connective tissue and bone, leading to tooth loss. Smoking cannabis and tobacco can cause damage to teeth, gums and other soft tissues in the mouth. Soft tissues include lips, tongue, gums, cheeks and the roof of the mouth.
Even small changes in how much saliva is produced can cause bad breath, a sore or burning mouth, and make it harder to chew, swallow and speak.
Cannabis smoking (and eating) causes changes in the lining of the mouth called cannabis stomatitis. In the long-term, this leads to chronic inflammation which is a risk factor for oral cancers.
Users must talk to their dentist openly about their use of drugs (not only cannabis), as illicit drugs (as well as prescription drugs) can react with some anesthetics commonly used in dentistry to cause Health complications. If they are aware of the patient’s drug use, the dentist can also keep an eye on the various potential risk areas in the mouth (teeth, gums, soft tissues), which may be affected by the drug use. They can devise a specific care plan, which may help the user protect their teeth and gums.


Oil pulling and oral health

Oil pulling can be explained to be the process of swishing edible oil (coconut, olive, sesame or the like) throughout the mouth for usually one to five minutes, but for up to as long as 20 minutes depending on the case. Oil pulling has supposedly been practiced for centuries in southern Asia and India. The basic idea is that oil is swished in the mouth for a short time each day and that this action helps improve oral health.

How to Oil Pull
While it sounds like some kind of labor-intensive job in the resource sector (kind of like grape stomping or cattle roping), oil pulling is pretty simple.
Oil pulling is to be done first thing in the morning, before eating or brushing your teeth:
• Take about a tablespoon of edible oil (such as olive, sesame, coconut, or sunflower oil).
• Put it in your mouth without swallowing.
• Swish it around for 10-15 minutes while doing your other bathroom business.
• At the end of the 10-15 minutes, spit it out.
• Rinse your mouth completely with warm water.
• Floss, brush and get on with your day.

The benefits of oil pulling
1. Whitens teeth
2. Strengthens teeth, gum, and jaw
3. Prevents cavities and gingivitis
4. Helps with bad breath
5. Detoxification of the body
6. Relieves a headache and migraine
7. Help to improve quality of sleep

The basic idea is that oil is swished in the mouth for a short time each day and that this action helps improve oral health. Just as with Oil Cleansing for the skin, the principle of “like dissolves like” applies, as oil is able to cut through plaque and remove toxins without disturbing the teeth or gums. All of the oils that are often used are completely edible and considered to be healthy when eaten, so they aren’t problematic when swished in the mouth. Oil pulling is observed to bring improvement in oral hygiene when practiced correctly and regularly. Limited available research on the effect of oil pulling on oral hygiene shows promising benefits of oil pulling procedure on the oral cavity.



Dentures also know as false teeth and gums are replacements for missing teeth that can be taken out and fixed back into your mouth. Dentures can either be full or partial, meaning that they can replace all teeth on either the top or down gum line or just a few missing teeth. Regardless of the kind of denture you require, they will be customized to fit your mouth and visually matched to your existing teeth.


They may be several reasons why one may lose teeth during their lifetime. Extraction of teeth may be necessary because of periodontal disease or tooth decay. Teeth can also be removed due to defects or deterioration caused by other health problems, but most often teeth are lost through injury.

Everyone will not be entirely without teeth but even the loss of a few teeth can cause problems and also affect your appearance. If they are multiple missing teeth, there is less support for the checks and lips and this can cause the facial muscle to sag. This deterioration of teeth can make eating and speak more difficult. The use of dentures to replace lost teeth restores the appearance of your smile while also providing the necessary support to keep your entire face healthy.



The complete denture is being worn by people who lost all the teeth in a single arch or in both arches, complete dentures can either be conventional or immediate. Conventional dentures are made after the teeth have been lost or removed is ready for placement in the mouth 8 to 12 weeks after teeth lose. On the other hand, immediate dentures are made in advance and can be positioned as soon as the teeth are removed.  In this case, the patient doesn’t have to be without teeth during the healing period. The disadvantage of immediate dentures is that they require more adjustment to fit properly during the healing process.


Partial dentures are made for patients who are missing some of their teeth on a particular arch, the partial denture is removable and can be fixed back when needed. It consists of all pink or gum-colored plastic base which is sometimes connected to a metal framework that holds the denture in place in the mouth.


Complete or partial dentures require proper care to keep them clean, free from stains, good looking and for a healthy mouth. Here are some of the tips for good denture care;

  1. Remove and rinse denture after eating: After each meal, it is essential to remove the denture from the mouth and rinse properly. You may want to place a towel on the counter or in the sink or put some water in the sink so that the denture doesn’t break if you drop
  2. Handle the denture with great care: avoid bending the plastic or the clips when cleaning, to avoid damaging the denture.
  3. Brush and rinse dentures daily without toothpaste: microscopic scratches that can give room for food and plaque to build up. Just like natural teeth, dentures require daily brushing to remove food plaque. Brushing the dentures also helps to prevent the development of permanent stains on it.
  4. Regular dental check-ups: Your dentist will recommend visit schedule in order to have your denture examined, professionally cleaned and ensure proper fit to prevent slippage and discomfort.
  5. Ensure you see your dentist if you have a lose fit, sores, irritation, and infection.



Cosmetic Dentistry

Dentists can perform a verity of procedures to improve your smile from subtle changes to major repairs. There are many techniques and options to treat teeth that are discolored, chipped, misshapen or missing. Dentists can reshape the teeth, close spaces, restore worn or short teeth and even alter the length of your teeth.

While traditional dentistry focuses on oral hygiene and preventing, diagnosis and treating oral disease, cosmetic dentistry focuses on improving the appearance of the teeth, mouth, and smile. Cosmetic dentistry provides elective or desired treatments or services. Cosmetic dentistry can also provide restoration benefits such as dental fillings.


The advancement in technology with regards to natural looks, tooth color, dental materials make today’s cosmetic dental treatments more durable than in the past years. Dentists also use technologies such as lasers in order to perform some procedures necessary for cosmetic treatments in their own office without referring the patient to other specialists. Procedures like smile makeover are made more comfortable and convenient for patients, as well as helps to reduce the time taken for recovery.


  1. Teeth whitening: This happens to be one of the most commonly recommended cosmetic dentistry procedures. Teeth are most times stained from smoking, food, drinks or poor hygiene. Teeth bleaching can enhance the appearance of your smile
  2. Inlays and Onlays: Also known as indirect fillings, inlays and onlays which are made from porcelain or composite materials are a long-lasting yet aesthetically pleasing way to provide a filling to teeth with tooth decay or similar structural damage. Inlays and Onlays are created in a dental laboratory and bonded into place by the dentist. The filling is called an “inlay”, when the material is bonded onlay”.
  3. Crowns: Also known as caps, covers a tooth to restore it to its normal shape and appearance, because of the cost they are a user in cases where other procedures will not be effective. It has the longest life expectancy of all cosmetic restorations and at the same time, the most time-consuming.
  4. Composite bonding: Broken, discolored, decayed or chipped teeth can be repaired and have their appearance restored using a procedure called composite bonding. Dental composite materials with the look of enamel and dentin are applied into the cavity or into the surface of a tooth where it is then sculpted into shapes, contours and hardened with a high-intensity
  5. Dental Implants: Dental implants are artificial or titanium replacement tooth roots inserted into the bone socket of the missing tooth. As the jaw bone heals, it grows around the implanted metal post anchoring it securely in the jaw and providing a foundation for a replacement tooth.

There are still some other options in which one can opt for in cosmetics dentistry such as dental veneers, smile makeover, and full mouth reconstruction.



Dental Sealants

Teeth brushing and flossing are the best ways to help prevent cavities, but it’s not always easy to brush and floss clean every nook and cranny of the teeth, especially those back teeth you use to chew (molars). Molars are rough, unseen and a favorite place for leftover food and cavity-causing bacteria to hide. But then, there is another safety net to help keep the teeth clean, called dental sealants.

Dental sealants or fissure sealants is a thin, plastic coating, painted on the chewing surfaces of teeth, usually the back teeth (premolars and molars) to prevent tooth decay. Dental sealants quickly bond into depressions and grooves the teeth, forming a protective shield over the enamel of each tooth.

A dental sealant is a preservative treatment of that is part of the minimal interventions of dentistry approach to dental and oral care. It facilitates the prevention and quick intervention, in order to prevent or stop the tooth decay process before it reaches the end stage of disease, which is known as the cavitation of a tooth. As soon as the tooth is cavitated, it requires dental restoration in order to repair the damage, this emphasizes the importance of prevention in preserving our teeth for a lifetime of chewing.


Dental sealants can be thought of as a raincoat of the teeth. When the cavity-causing bacteria that live in the mouth meet leftover food particles, they produce acids that can create holes in the teeth. The application of sealants keeps this bit of food out and stops bacteria acid from settling on the teeth, just as the raincoat keeps the rain from beating you.


Dental sealants can be applied as soon as child’s permanent back teeth, the molars have fully grown. This is done so that the deep grooves and pits that are seen on the chewing surface of the teeth are filled in before cavities sets in. Protecting the molars and premolars from the very start greatly reduce the chances of getting cavities or worse dental issues later in life.

Most times sealants are applied during childhood, some adults may need to have them applied later in life if they never had the procedure done earlier or if there is the development of pit in teeth where there was none previously.


As soon as a dental sealant is applied, and set on a tooth, it requires no special treatment. The patient only needs to continue brushing twice daily and flossing regularly. Additionally, protection and an extra brilliant smile can be gotten through the use of a fluoridated, non-alcoholic mouthwash after brushing the teeth.



Are You Brushing Your Teeth Too Hard?

If your teeth are sensitive, brushing too hard or using the wrong toothbrush can aggravate the symptoms. Learn appropriate brushing techniques.

When it comes to brushing, there is proper technology. Too much to brushing – or using the wrong toothbrush – can damage the teeth and gums, cause problems with enamel wear and gums, which can lead to tooth sensitivity. “People tend to brush their teeth aggressively, thinking it’s the only way they can make their teeth clean and look whiter.” “That’s going to be counterproductive as it will not only cause gums to fail but will also wear white, teeth Lustrous enamel makes them look yellowerier and deeper. “When this happens, you’re at risk of developing sensitive teeth.

Not sure if you are brushing too hard? Look at your toothbrush. If you have been using it for three months or less, it should still look newer. “If it looks mediocre, then this is a sign that you brush too hard,”

The Proper Way to Brush Your Teeth

It takes a lot of mindfulness, but you can change your way of suffering. Follow these tips for proper brushing to reduce tooth sensitivity and prevent damage to your teeth and gums:Use a soft bristled toothbrush. Choose a product with an ADA seal to be replaced every three months – or in the event of a malfunction, replace.Toothbrush and gums into a 45 degree angle. In this way, the mane can reach and clean under your gums,Gently move the brush back and forth. ADA recommends using a short, full-tooth stroke to clean the outer, inner, and chew surfaces of the tooth. (If your gingival recession is severe, the dentist may suggest that you try rolling techniques.) If you are using an electric toothbrush, have it do its job and gently slide it over your teeth instead of pushing them toward your teeth. To make sure you use a light grip, try placing your toothbrush in your uncontrolled hands.


Sensitive Teeth: What Your Dentist Wants You to Know

Life habits often cause or contribute to tooth sensitivity. For example, a harmful habit is to brush your teeth aggressively with a hard toothbrush. If you brush too hard, you can rub off the outer enamel that protects your teeth, revealing the teeth that contain nerve endings, he said. If exposed, the nerve endings in the layer of tooth tissue known as dentin will emit a painful signal when stimulated.

Clenching or molars may wear enamel, expose nerves in the teeth and make them more sensitive to temperature and changes in sugary or sticky foods.

Aging can also play a role in tooth sensitivity. As you grow older and gingival recession, the layer of cementum below the gingival line may wear out, causing the teeth to stick to the bones. Without cementum, your teeth become more exposed and become more sensitive. Gum disease can also cause gingival recession and lead to more nerve exposure.

In addition, acid reflux may help sensitive teeth. “The stomach acid is highly acidic. If the food you eat causes acid reflux and there is a constant stomach acid in the mouth, it can damage the enamel on your teeth,” Taylor said. Some of the most serious tooth-sensitive cases occur in acid reflux patients

When to see your dentist

Regular dental examination is very important, so that you can prevent or manage excessive accumulation of plaque and periodontal disease, because they can also increase the sensitivity.

Cold sensitivity is more common, but not thermolabile. If you are sensitive to hot food, go to the dentist. “This may be a more serious problem that should be solved to prevent more serious problems, such as abscesses.”

The AGD suggests that when talking to dentists about tooth sensitivity, be sure to explain when it hurts and what helps relieve pain. These details can help guide your dental care. “Your dentist can advise you whether it will help bond you to the area of ​​the tooth in question, especially exposed roots.


Five Tips for Managing Pediatric Dental Anxiety

Teeth anxiety is prevalent in children. It is found that as many as 19.5% of school-age children are afraid of dentists. Treating children with dental anxiety presents a challenge to dental clinicians. In fact, it is reported that one of the most problematic types of patients is reported by dentists as fearful children. Dental anxiety is not only problematic to clinicians, but also has the potential to adversely affect patient access to optimal dental care. The next few behavioral strategies should help treat children with dental anxiety.


In general, children tend to do their best when their lives are predictable. When they are told in advance what happens, they are more likely to tolerate the procedure. Providing information is especially important for anxious children. The clinician should consider describing what he or she is going to do and what the child will experience.


Relaxation strategies are very useful for children who are obviously anxious or anxious to the clinician. Many children feel comfortable after a simple deep-breathing exercise, which involves deep breathing and slow exhalation. Requiring children to blow bubbles through their wands (items purchased during the summer) produces similar effects, sometimes distracting.


Distraction may help reduce dental anxiety. Clinicians may consider several distracting approaches. First, the toy may also distract the child in the dental chair if the child plays a toy in the waiting room. Obviously, not all toys or programs are suitable for this strategy, but at least it should be considered.


The positive reinforcement of compliments and small but tangible rewards (such as stickers, pretend tattoos and baseball cards) can be a useful incentive for cooperation and “bravery”. Enhancement can be released frequently; younger children need more frequent reinforcement of children. There is actually not much reinforcement, although clinicians should try to be real.

Parent’s participation

There are several ways parents can help deal with anxious children. First, clinicians should not hesitate to ask their parents for help if their child has serious difficulties. In other situations, the child may exhibit this anxiety and the child’s parent may have some strategies that may be most effective for the child.